People who straddle between the working and the middle classes are probably the ones who have to struggle the most just to get by—they are the ones who fall through the cracks of the social safety net. In some ways it works for them, they can buy a car, they can rent a house, buy food, and educate themselves without having to call on other people, but they have to keep working just to get on by. They are too rich to qualify for an education assistance, yet they are too poor to fund the education of their children all through the tertiary level. They cannot qualify for a tax rebate, but their tax rate kills them. They are the ones who have they had less assets, less money in the bank, less savings, they could have qualified for the social services, and it would have helped them—yet they know that those assets, those savings, are a life support. They are too poor to consider themselves leading a good life, without having the need to worry about retirement or pension, yet rich enough not to be called impoverished. It’s just weird I guess. Working hard seems to make ends meet; it can’t be that way forever yet there seems no other possible end in sight to it. They know it’s an injustice, that it’s inequality at play, but the fact that they are better off than others makes them not want to complain. They are probably the living embodiment of how paradoxical inequality/equality works for the society.

And all this came out because I was asked who I voted for during the recent elections.

The Breakfast Pandas. My brother calls them zombies.

Top row: Ghost of Panda, Col. Sanders Panda, Almost There Panda

Bottom row: Most Improved Panda, Black-Eyed Panda (Gangsta Panda…always gets into trouble), Panda on Steroids (this one’s a body builder, hence the tan and and the bulk)

And Panda Who Went To My Stomach…aka the last of the Breakfast Pandas :)

Description
This map depicts the locations of the world’s top 400 universities as ranked by the Times Higher Education. It also illustrates the relative wealth of the country that hosts each university.
Data
The map uses data from the World University Rankings 2013-2014, published by the Times Higher Education, in collaboration withThomson Reuters. Thirteen indicators that measure teaching, research, knowledge transfer and international outlook are taken into account in order to evaluate universities.
Each university is represented as a square, and shaded according to the World Bank income group that its country belongs to. The four World Bank income groups are high-income (GNI per capita of >$12,616), upper-middle income ($4,086 – $12,615), lower-middle income ($1,036 – $4,085), and low-income (<$1,036). We exclude the low-income category from this map because not one of the 400 universities is located in a low-income country.
The universities are grouped by world region, and the equator is depicted as a red line towards the bottom of the map.
Some universities are further grouped into metropolitan region clusters. The clusters have been identified using the DBSCAN density-based clustering algorithm, applying a 50 km distance threshold, and a minimum cardinality of four universities. Because of the compact nature of many European cities, we further refined some clusters manually in order to achieve meaningful definitions of metropolitan regions.
Findings
The primary finding is that most of the world’s top-ranked universities are located in the world’s wealthiest countries (a point also made by Benjamin Hennig and his cartograms of the Times Higher Education rankings). The Greater London cluster alone, which does not include Oxford and Cambridge, contains the same number of top-400 universities as all of Sub-Saharan Africa, the Middle East, and Latin America combined!
Not only are there are no low-income countries represented in the ranking, but India is also the only lower-middle income country represented, being home to five of the top-400 ranked universities. Latin America and Sub-Saharan Africa are home to three universities each, all six being based in upper-middle-income countries (i.e., Brazil, Colombia, and South Africa). These eleven elite universities in India, Latin America, and Sub-Saharan Africa serve a population of over 2.7 billion people.
The ranking also includes ten universities in China, an upper-middle-income economy that is home to over 1.3 billion citizens, and seven other universities from the same income group: five in Turkey, one in Iran, and one in Thailand. The remaining 34 Asian universities included in the ranking are mostly concentrated in densely populated (and wealthy) cities like Hong Kong, Seoul, Taipei, Tokyo, and Singapore.
The Middle East and North Africa also reveals a relatively concentrated geography of elite universities. Of the six universities included from the region, three are in Israel, two in Saudi Arabia, and one in Iran.
Oceania is interestingly the largest world region (in terms of number of top universities) present below the equator. All the top-400 universities in this region are found either in Australia or New Zealand, with two large clusters in Melbourne and Sydney.
Almost half of the top-400 universities are located in Europe, and over a quarter are in the United States. Northern Europe and the US East Coast are home to some of the largest university clusters, most notably in Greater London and Boston.
It’s important to remember that there are tens of thousands of universities that aren’t represented on this map; what this graphic doesn’t do is visualize the potentials or practices of all higher education worldwide. However, what it does do is clearly illustrate the highly uneven geography of elite education. The universities in the top-400 list don’t just command an undue amount of power, resources, and influence, but also serve to actively produce and reproduce it in particular parts of the world.

Description

This map depicts the locations of the world’s top 400 universities as ranked by the Times Higher Education. It also illustrates the relative wealth of the country that hosts each university.

Data

The map uses data from the World University Rankings 2013-2014, published by the Times Higher Education, in collaboration withThomson ReutersThirteen indicators that measure teaching, research, knowledge transfer and international outlook are taken into account in order to evaluate universities.

Each university is represented as a square, and shaded according to the World Bank income group that its country belongs to. The four World Bank income groups are high-income (GNI per capita of >$12,616), upper-middle income ($4,086 – $12,615), lower-middle income ($1,036 – $4,085), and low-income (<$1,036). We exclude the low-income category from this map because not one of the 400 universities is located in a low-income country.

The universities are grouped by world region, and the equator is depicted as a red line towards the bottom of the map.

Some universities are further grouped into metropolitan region clusters. The clusters have been identified using the DBSCAN density-based clustering algorithm, applying a 50 km distance threshold, and a minimum cardinality of four universities. Because of the compact nature of many European cities, we further refined some clusters manually in order to achieve meaningful definitions of metropolitan regions.

Findings

The primary finding is that most of the world’s top-ranked universities are located in the world’s wealthiest countries (a point also made by Benjamin Hennig and his cartograms of the Times Higher Education rankings). The Greater London cluster alone, which does not include Oxford and Cambridge, contains the same number of top-400 universities as all of Sub-Saharan Africa, the Middle East, and Latin America combined!

Not only are there are no low-income countries represented in the ranking, but India is also the only lower-middle income country represented, being home to five of the top-400 ranked universities. Latin America and Sub-Saharan Africa are home to three universities each, all six being based in upper-middle-income countries (i.e., Brazil, Colombia, and South Africa). These eleven elite universities in India, Latin America, and Sub-Saharan Africa serve a population of over 2.7 billion people.

The ranking also includes ten universities in China, an upper-middle-income economy that is home to over 1.3 billion citizens, and seven other universities from the same income group: five in Turkey, one in Iran, and one in Thailand. The remaining 34 Asian universities included in the ranking are mostly concentrated in densely populated (and wealthy) cities like Hong Kong, Seoul, Taipei, Tokyo, and Singapore.

The Middle East and North Africa also reveals a relatively concentrated geography of elite universities. Of the six universities included from the region, three are in Israel, two in Saudi Arabia, and one in Iran.

Oceania is interestingly the largest world region (in terms of number of top universities) present below the equator. All the top-400 universities in this region are found either in Australia or New Zealand, with two large clusters in Melbourne and Sydney.

Almost half of the top-400 universities are located in Europe, and over a quarter are in the United States. Northern Europe and the US East Coast are home to some of the largest university clusters, most notably in Greater London and Boston.

It’s important to remember that there are tens of thousands of universities that aren’t represented on this map; what this graphic doesn’t do is visualize the potentials or practices of all higher education worldwide. However, what it does do is clearly illustrate the highly uneven geography of elite education. The universities in the top-400 list don’t just command an undue amount of power, resources, and influence, but also serve to actively produce and reproduce it in particular parts of the world.

This series of graphics depicts the control of academic journals in the Web of Knowledge index by publishers. Mapping academic publishers allows us to understand the geography of who controls the printing and dissemination of academic knowledge.
Data
This visualisation uses data from the Web of Knowledge Journal Citation Reports (JCR) from 2009. Two types of visualisations are paired together on this graphic. The choropleth maps illustrate the number of publishers in each country with darker colours indicating more publishers. The treemaps indicate the number of journals published by each publisher. This graphic is segmented into three categories: publishers of science journals, publishers of social science journals and publishers of both.
Findings
Despite the absence of linguistic and geographic diversity in academic publishing, there remains a surprising lack of concentration amongst journal publishers. Within the groups of publishers that focus only on journals in the sciences or social sciences, the publication of journals is distributed through many organisations and companies. The larger group of publishers that control both science and social science journals, on the other hand, are characterized by a greater degree of clustering (i.e. fewer organizations controlling relatively large numbers of journals). Springer, Wiley-Blackwell, Elsevier and Taylor &amp; Francis control a large amount of the academic publishing market and all have relatively high average citation scores.
Visualization and analysis by Dr Mark Graham, Scott A. Hale and Monica Stephens in collaboration with Dr Corinne M. Flick and the Convoco Foundation.
This map is taken from the following publication: “Graham, M., Hale, S. A. and Stephens, M. (2011) Geographies of the World’s Knowledge. London, Convoco! Edition.”

This series of graphics depicts the control of academic journals in the Web of Knowledge index by publishers. Mapping academic publishers allows us to understand the geography of who controls the printing and dissemination of academic knowledge.

Data

This visualisation uses data from the Web of Knowledge Journal Citation Reports (JCR) from 2009. Two types of visualisations are paired together on this graphic. The choropleth maps illustrate the number of publishers in each country with darker colours indicating more publishers. The treemaps indicate the number of journals published by each publisher. This graphic is segmented into three categories: publishers of science journals, publishers of social science journals and publishers of both.

Findings

Despite the absence of linguistic and geographic diversity in academic publishing, there remains a surprising lack of concentration amongst journal publishers. Within the groups of publishers that focus only on journals in the sciences or social sciences, the publication of journals is distributed through many organisations and companies. The larger group of publishers that control both science and social science journals, on the other hand, are characterized by a greater degree of clustering (i.e. fewer organizations controlling relatively large numbers of journals). Springer, Wiley-Blackwell, Elsevier and Taylor & Francis control a large amount of the academic publishing market and all have relatively high average citation scores.

Visualization and analysis by Dr Mark Graham, Scott A. Hale and Monica Stephens in collaboration with Dr Corinne M. Flick and the Convoco Foundation.

This map is taken from the following publication: “Graham, M., Hale, S. A. and Stephens, M. (2011) Geographies of the World’s Knowledge. London, Convoco! Edition.”

Some tips on EndNote…or a very lousy tutorial if you ask me

EndNote can be fiddly when you have a lot of references in there already. Here are some ways to prevent it from messing up your write-up especially if you are already in the home stretch.

DISCLAIMER: This does not guarantee that EndNote would not mess up—EndNote messing up is a function of the number of references with attachments in your library, the number of pages in your manuscript, the number of citations you have in a certain EndNote library that is found in your paper, the number of EndNote libraries open containing the same entries, the number of EndNote libraries open at the same time, the number of times you edit your manuscript, etc. But it somehow prevents it from being fiddly when you are still in the editing stages.

If you have an existing word file already, go to the EndNote tab, and then in the one marked Style, click the one that says Convert Citations and Bibliography. A drop-down menu would come out and then click Convert to Unformatted Citations: 

image

Then some things would happen. If the paper you are editing is formatted there is a list of references at the end. When you click the Convert to Unformatted Citations option, that reference list will disappear. And instead of nicely done citations, what you would see are your citations looking like this: 

image

Now don’t panic. When you want to add a reference go back to the EndNote tab. And then choose the one with some magnifying glass on it which says Insert Citation: 

image

When you click the Insert Citation option, this window would come out: image

Search the author you are looking for. Keyword will do. Now say I wanted to insert Cullen (2009), so I type in cullen and out comes numerous entries that have either Cullen as the main author, or as co-author OR somewhere in the fields in the reference has the word ‘cullen’—so be careful with your search. Suppose I type in there ‘air’ to look for an author named Air (this is hypothetical), the search would come out with numerous entries with the word ‘dairy’ in it simply because my search ‘air’ appears in ‘dairy’.

Go to the bottom buttons, and click the arrow down if you want some fancy schmancy formatting. Clicking Insert would have the format of (Author, Year). So I chose Author (Year) format, and when EndNote inserts the citation, it would come out as:

image

Now. Supposing I’m done with the paper and I want to send it off to my supervisors, of course, they wouldn’t understand my paper if it’s riddled with @@ and #—that would look too unprofessional. So I then go back to the EndNote tab, and to the Style:

image

But this time I click the one that says Update Citations and Bibliography.

Again some things would happen:

image

But there’s no need to panic…

image

And your reference list would come out at the end of the paper all formatted nicely:

image

Now supposing your supervisors have edited it and sent you back your crappy manuscript. Go back to the first stage of this ‘tutorial.’ It’s a wee bit fiddly, but once you get the hang of it, it saves you (somehow…) the heart attack of having all your references wiped out and you’re already ready to submit your 300+ page manuscript.